例如，正如克兰德尔（1999）“合作学习”不仅仅是小集团活动。在一个结构化的协作任务，一个真正的信息有差距，需要学习者听，有助于口语的发展，书面或其他产品所代表的群体的努力，知识和观点，已经进行了许多研究，可见à可见这种合作学习方法的有效性。合作学习是一种有计划的集体学习活动，学习依赖于群体间学习者之间的社会结构信息交换，每个学习者都对自己的学习负责，并积极促进其他人的学习。（奥尔森和卡根，1992）。此外，Barbara Leigh Smith和Jean T. MacGregor（1992）提到合作学习是一个“各种教育方法的总括术语，涉及学生、学生和教师共同的智力努力”。从这个报价，可以说在一定程度上的合作学习，协作学习活动也覆盖了广阔的领土的方法如课堂讨论点缀短讲座、同伴教育、学生一起放在量的课堂或课外时间和其他组的工作。Nunan（1992），例如，采用合作学习和协作学习的互换和引用了如下的定义：“合作学习需要的学生一起工作，达到共同的学习目标。”（文，1983；夏朗等人。1984）。但对于这项研究，我们的重点是小组工作。
For example, as stated by Crandall (1999) "Cooperative learning is more than just small group activity. In a well-structured cooperative task, there is a genuine information gap, requiring learners to both listen and contribute to the development of an oral, written or other product which represents the group's efforts, knowledge and perspectives.Many studies have been conducted vis-à-vis the effectiveness of such cooperative learning approaches. Cooperative learning is group learning activity planned so that learning is reliant on the socially structured exchange of information between learners in groups and in which each learner is held accountable for his or her own learning and is motivated to increase the learning of others. (Olsen & Kagan, 1992).In addition Barbara Leigh Smith and Jean T. MacGregor (1992) mentioned collaborative learning as an "umbrella term for a variety of educational approaches involving joint intellectual effort by students, or students and teachers together". Drawing from this quotation, it can be said that to some extent together with cooperative learning, collaborative learning activities also cover a broad territory of approaches such as classroom discussions intersperse with short lectures, peer teaching, students put together around group work in the amount of in-class or out-of-class time and others. Nunan (1992), for instance, uses the terms cooperative learning and collaborative learning interchangeably and quotes the following definition: "Collaborative learning entails students working together to achieve common learning goals."(Slavin, 1983; Sharan et al. 1984). But for this study our prime focus is on group work.