psychology essay代写:Implications and conclusions
To this end, the present study provides a number of important theoretical and applied implications for metacognitive and decision-making research. On a theoretical level, this research extended knowledge about the generality and predictive validity of metacognitive judgement confidence and its calibration. Our results provide strong support that individual differences in metacognitive confidence and its calibration, so consistently observed within the cognitive domain, generalise to decision-making under conditions of subjective uncertainty. Furthermore, the present results revealed reliable decision-making tendencies, and that these tendencies share meaningful predictive relations with confidence and its calibration.
Regarding applied practice, it is clear that judgement confidence and its derived measures should be collected as important predictors of decision-making behaviour. For example, confidence estimates acquired within a practical medical scenario could provide useful insight into doctors’ decision-making tendencies and ability. This could help train doctors where they demonstrate serious metacognitive deficits. Furthermore, confidence estimates may be a desirable predictor in high stake situations as good calibration may be particularly difficult to fake. The ease with which confidence estimates are collected could see their utility being effectively implemented across many domains: industrial/organisational, educational, clinical, financial, military, and political, to name a few.
Two further applications present themselves. Firstly, it is possible that interventions designed to develop and improve confidence and its calibration could have significant impacts on decision-making. Implementing strategies designed to develop diagnostic confidence and its calibration at a university level might lead to better future clinicians. Secondly, given the generality observed here, confidence judgements acquired in any domain might still provide some useful indication of decision-making tendencies in another. Confidence estimates could be easily collected to help predict decision-making tendencies where cognitive tests are routinely administered, such as pre-employment selection. Each of these applications would require further scrutiny, but the potential utility that they present are certainly worthy of such consideration.
We sought to investigate the role of confidence in decision-making by capturing a more complete perspective of the decision-making process. In doing so, our results indicated that reliable individual differences in decision-making tendencies exist and that confidence shares a significant and meaningful relationship with them. The implications of these results extend beyond the theoretical realm to possibly improving prediction and intervention strategies wherever decision-making is of interest. We are therefore of the opinion that continued investigation into the generalisability and predictive validity of individual differences in metacognitive confidence, and its calibration, will be of great value.
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