福特认为，与低水平学生相同的群体受到标准测试的歧视，因为这样的测试“偏向于“色盲或文化盲、以欧洲为中心、整体和狭隘”的过程。作者继续支持Renzulli & Reis(2007)和Sternberg所引用的模型，对于那些相信利用多种方法来识别有天赋的学生的人。这些措施包括投资组合,观察,老师,父母或同伴提名和考试分数和可用于识别有天赋的学生以及识别那些学生”可能是错过了只使用传统工具”有许多因素影响识别和可用性有天赋的编程cl学生。使用的评估工具，教育者的偏见，“对学生的文化行为的感知，教师准备的数量和质量，以及各种教学策略的程度”影响了学生的身份识别和服务(Briggs, 2008)。语言障碍，无刺激的环境，害怕不“教学”，以及认为很少有天赋的学生可以被发现，这也影响了这些群体的身份识别。
Ford who believes that the same groups along with low-SES students are discriminated against by standard tests because such tests are "biased against process that is "color blind or culture blind, Eurocentric, monolithic and narrow" . The authors go on to support the models referenced in Renzulli & Reis (2007), and Sternberg, regarding those who believe in utilizing multiple measures for identifying gifted students. Such measures include portfolios, observations, teacher, parent or peer nominations and test scores and may be used to identify gifted students as well as to identify those students who "may be missed using only traditional tools" There are many factors that influence identification and availability of gifted programming to CLED students. The assessment tools that are used, educator bias, the "perception of cultural behaviors, quantity and quality of teacher preparation for working with CLED students, and degree of variety of instruction strategies" influence the identification and services provided for CLED students (Briggs, 2008). Language barriers, non-stimulating environments, fear of not "teaching to the test" and the belief that few gifted students can be found in CLED students also influence under-identification of these groups.