协作学习不是结构化的团队过程;关心培养独立,独立的思想通过协作过程(€¦]个人成功学生(学习)不是一个中央关注(€¦)相反,令人担忧的是,联合小组活动导致获取知识或解决问题,优于个人努力.Similarly,沃特金斯,卡内尔和洛奇(2007)强调合作的两个主要特征。第一个是通过它，新的东西被创造出来，否则就不会被创造出来。第二，只有当所有参与者都可以为一个新的共享产品做出贡献时，协作才会发生。在与Olivares(2007)、Watkins、Carnell and Lodge(2007)的协议中，当学习者向彼此解释他们的意义时，他们的学习变得更加丰富和深入，因为这意味着要让其他人理解个人的理解是一个挑战。后者在语言学习和教学领域有具体的证据。Swain(2000)提出，合作对话或超越“输出假设”，引导学习者在学习过程中取得进步，因为通过谈判的意义，他们会发现自己的语言中有漏洞，并寻找克服它们的策略。因此，参与一项真正需要协作的任务的学习者，需要从多个角度对问题进行沟通，并通过语言创建一个共同的基础。在这些条件下，他们的话语比单独工作的人更有思想，更概念化。
collaborative learning is not a structured group process; it is concerned with cultivating independence, and independence of thought through the collaborative process [â€¦] Individual student success (learning) is NOT a central concern [â€¦] rather, the concern is that joint group activities result in knowledge acquisition or problem solving that is superior to individual efforts .Similarly, Watkins, Carnell and Lodge (2007) highlight two main characteristics of collaboration. The first one refers to the fact that through it, something new is created that could not have been created otherwise. The second is that collaboration can only take place when all the participants can contribute to a new shared product. In agreement with Olivares (2007), Watkins, Carnell and Lodge (2007) enhance the idea that when learners explain their meaning-making to each other, their learning is richer and deeper, since this implies the challenge to have others make sense of individual understandings. The latter has a specific evidence in the language learning and teaching field. Swain (2000) proposed that collaborative dialogues or going beyond "the output hypothesis" lead learners to make progress in their learning process, since through negotiation of meaning, they notice holes in their interlanguage and look for strategies to overcome them. Therefore, learners who are involved in a task that really demands collaboration, are required to bridge multiple perspectives on the problem, and create a common ground through language. Under these conditions their discourse becomes more thoughtful and conceptual than does that of individuals working alone .