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穆斯林社会的一些成员对他们自己的信仰学校的推动,需要从穆斯林移民英国的背景、随后的融合和最近的世界事件中得到理解。上世纪50年代第一批从南亚来的穆斯林是半熟练或非熟练工。他们倾向于与更广泛的社区保持隔离,这是他们自己选择的一个功能,作为对他们所经历的种族主义和社会排斥的回应。(海夫纳,p.227)后续开放的移民政策在20世纪70年代允许家属按照现在75%在英国所有的穆斯林都来自南亚。根据2001次人口普查,大约160万名英国穆斯林占总人口的3%。(海夫纳,第227页)在英国,“穆斯林”已成为“巴基斯坦”的同义词。第三代英国出生的穆斯林家庭不再认为自己是移民,尽管成为一名英国穆斯林意味着仍然是一个正在谈判的概念。我们的身份被我们自己对历史的理解所定义,就像我们如何看待别人看待我们一样。近年来,穆斯林的身份与世界事件紧密相连,并在媒体上表现突出。自2001年9月11日以来,穆斯林一直遭到绝大多数敌对媒体的轰炸,政府显然有意攻击穆斯林公民的自由和人权。Salma Hafejee描述了一个事件,引起不寻常的感情在她21岁的儿子。在一部关于“我们的生活”的电影中,她探讨了穆斯林妇女在布拉德福德的见解和经历,她讲述了她儿子到巴塞罗那的周末访问的故事。巧合的是,在他旅行的周末有一系列与被描述为恐怖活动连接在巴塞罗那被捕。在他回家的路上,她的儿子被警察接了好几个小时。她说他一直觉得自己是英国人,相信英国护照会保护他,但他第一次感到自己家里有外星人。(说出来,2009)人们可以很好地想象,这种经历和不断的关于他对媒体信仰的负面印象一定是令人困惑的。当然在这种敌意和“其他”长这样,社区会有一种倾向,紧密团结、寻求安慰、保护和安全。
The drive for some members of the Muslim community towards their own faith schools needs to be understood in light of the backdrop of Muslim migration into the UK, their subsequent integration and recent world events. The first Muslims arriving from South Asia in the 1950s were semi-skilled or unskilled labourers. They had a tendency to stay insulated from the wider community - this being as much a function of their own choice as a response to the racism and social exclusion they were experiencing. (Hefner, p.227) Subsequent open immigration policies of the 1970s allowed their families to follow and now 75% of all Muslims in the UK are from South Asia. According to the 2001 census, the approximately 1.6 million British Muslims make up roughly 3% of the population. (Hefner, p. 227) In the UK, "Muslim" has become synonymous with "Pakistani".Third generation British-born Muslim families no longer think of themselves as immigrants, although what it means to be a British Muslim is still a concept being negotiated. Our identities are defined as much by our own understanding of our histories as by how we think others perceive us. In recent years, the identity of Muslims has been tied up with world events and striking representations in the media. Since September 11th, 2001, Muslims have been bombarded by an overwhelmingly hostile media and a government apparently intent on impinging on the liberties and human rights of its Muslim citizens. Salma Hafejee described an event that evoked not uncommon feelings in her 21 year old son. Speaking on a film for "Our Lives", a project which explored the insights and experiences of Muslim women in Bradford, she told the story of a weekend visit her son took to Barcelona. Coincidently, on the weekend of his trip there had been a series of arrests made in Barcelona in connection with what had been described as terrorist activities. On his return home, her son was met by police and questioned for several hours. She said he had always felt British and believed that his British passport would protect him, but for the first time he felt an alien in his own home. (Speak-it, 2009) One can well imagine that this experience and the constant barrage of negative images relating to his faith in the media must have been bewildering. Naturally surrounded by such hostility and "other"ised in this way, a community would have a tendency to close ranks and look inward for comfort, protection and security.

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