In Malaysia, the school system is divided into primary level (6 years), lower secondary level (3-4 years), upper secondary level (2 years) and Form Six or matriculation (2 years). There are four major public examinations conducted at each level. At primary level, there is the Primary School Assessment Test (UPSR); at lower secondary level, the Lower Secondary Assessment (PMR); at upper secondary, the Malaysian Certificate of Education Examination (SPM) and at Form Six, the Malaysian Higher Education Certificate Examination (STPM). Nevertheless, the most decisive examination is the SPM. Based on the SPM results, a student may choose to enter Form Six or matriculation; polytechnic or teacher training colleges, private colleges or universities, or to further his/her study in an overseas institution. However, lately the trend has changed to using the STPM results as an entrance yardstick to both local and overseas university. Anyhow, all the examination results are taken seriously by both schools and parents as a measure of school accountability and individual pride. It is a common phenomenon for the mass media to publicize widely the examination results league table with the names of schools and individual student's outstanding performance.In China, the school system is slightly different in different parts of the country. For most places, the practice is 6 years of primary school, 3 years of middle school and 3 years of high school. The Education Law in China states that the first 9 years of education are compulsory and usually no tuition is charged. There are three important entrance examinations conducted at the end of: primary school (Grade 6); middle school (Grade 9) and high school (Grade 12). However, in Shanghai, the school system is 5 years primary, 4 years middle school and 3 years high school. The primary examination has been abolished (the main reason of the abolition of primary examination in the middle 90s is to reduce the children's learning burden so that their physical and mental health is improved). Thus, there are only two major public entrance examinations conducted in Shanghai. One is conducted at the end of middle school so as to be able to enter high school and another one is conducted at the end of high school so as to be able to enter university. Although the rate of enrollment [å‡å¦] to high school or university for Shanghai students is as high as above 70%, but most students compete to enter key schools or universities Comparatively, these schools tend to have better school facilities and better teacher quality. Consequently, in order to better differentiate the ability of the students, the entrance examination questions are getting more and more difficult, thus increasing the pressure on the students, teachers and parents.