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英国萨里大学论文代写 归因理论

Keywords:英国萨里大学论文代写 归因理论

海德的归因理论在教育、法律、临床心理学、心理健康等领域得到了广泛的应用。他的同事Weiner(1980)说:“因果归因决定了人们对成功和失败的情感反应。例如,一个不太可能骄傲的成功经验,或感觉的能力,当收到一个“A”从一个老师只让年级,或者当击败一位网球运动员,她总是失去……另一方面,一个“A”从一个老师给了一些高分或战胜高评级的网球选手后大量的实践产生巨大的积极影响。”(p.362)。自尊心强的学生倾向于把成功归因于内在因素,如运气和能力,而把失败归因于内在因素,如努力困难。例如,那些在完成阅读作业时不断遭遇失败的学生更有可能认为自己在阅读方面无能。这种阅读能力的自我感知反映了孩子在完成阅读作业时对失败的期望。海德是归因理论的创始人,而凯利的共变模型是最著名的归因理论。这个模型是用来判断一个特定的行为是否应该归因于一个特征或环境,也就是性格或情境。共变是指一个人在不同的时间和情况下,从对这个人的多次观察中获得的信息,从而形成一个观察到的结果及其原因。凯利认为,当人们做出这些假设时,我们就像科学家一样考虑了三种证据。第一个证据是共识,即在相似的情况下,其他人以相同的方式行事的程度。第二,独特性,即一个人在类似情况下以相同方式行事的程度。最后,第三点,一致性,即一个人在这种情况下的行为的程度。这些证据方法帮助人们在相关性的基础上确定因果关系。这可以解释为什么人们把两件事放在一起,他们认为一个导致另一个。然而,不了解足够的信息会导致在做出这种判断时出现困难。凯利认为,人们会回顾过去的经历,寻找多个必要原因或多个充分原因。多个必要原因可以解释为什么会发生这种情况,而多个充分原因可以给出为什么会发生这种情况的多个原因。
英国萨里大学论文代写 归因理论
Heider’s Attribution Theory has been widely applied in education, law, clinical psychology, and the mental health domain. A fellow colleague, Weiner (1980), states: “Causal attributions determine affective reactions to success and failure. For example, one is not likely to experience pride in success, or feelings of competence, when receiving an ‘A’ from a teacher who gives only that grade, or when defeating a tennis player who always loses…On the other hand, an ‘A’ from a teacher who gives few high grades or a victory over a highly rated tennis player following a great deal of practice generates great positive affect.” (p.362). Students with higher self-esteem tend to attribute success to internal factors, such as luck and ability, while they contribute failure to internal factors such as effort difficultly. For example, students who consistently experience failure while completing a reading assignment are more likely to see themselves as being incompetent in reading. This self-perception of reading ability reflects the children’s expectations of failure while completing the reading assignment.While Heider was the founder of Attribution Theory, H.H. Kelley’s covariation model is the best-known attribution theory. This model was created for judging whether a particular action should be attributed to a characteristic or the environment, otherwise known as dispositional or situational. Covariation is the information that a person has from multiple observations of this person, at different times and situations, to form an observed effect and its causes. Kelley believes that when people make these hypotheses, we are acting like scientist taking into account three kinds of evidence. The first piece of evidence being consensus, the extent to which other people behave in the same way in a similar situation. The second, distinctiveness, the extent to which the person behaves in the same way in similar situations. Finally, the third, consistency, the extent to which the person behaves like this every time the situation occurs. These methods of evidence help support people attributing causality on the basis of correlation. This can explain why people put two things together, they assume that one causes the other. However, not knowing enough information can cause difficulties when making that kind of judgement. According to Kelley, people fall back on past experiences and look for either multiple necessary causes or multiple sufficient causes. Multiple necessary causes can explain the exact why the situation happened, while multiple sufficient causes can give multiple reasons as to why this situation happened.

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