Armstrong defines performance management as “a process which contributes to the effective management of individuals and teams in order to achieve high levels of organisational performance. As such, it establishes shared understanding about what is to be achieved and an approach to leading and developing people which will ensure that it is achieved”. It is important to observe that from a HRM perspective performance management is not solely concerned with disciplinary procedures, but rather it is concerned with ensuring that each and every employee has the necessary support to achieve their objectives and potential. Thus, performance management is often closely correlated with learning and development as in order to achieve to their maximum potential employees must continue to expand their skills and to develop their capabilities. Furthermore, scholars such as Benson et al have observed a link between training and development and employee retention, which as previously identified, helps to ensure increased engagement and reduced employee churn.However in order to monitor and improve employee performance it is first necessary to set suitable objectives and targets and to apply metrics and benchmarks to these objectives and targets in order to objectively assess employee performance and development. At Starbucks there are two core elements which form the basis of employee performance; these are technical capability that is to say the ability to consistently produce a high quality cup of coffee, and secondly the ability to interact with other stakeholders including team colleagues and customers. The former can be objectively assessed by observation against agreed performance metrics such as speed of production and consistency of taste. This has benefit to individual employees and Starbucks as a whole because it ensures consistency of service and product quality across the network of franchises meaning that the reputation of Starbucks is maintained and also that Baristas are employable across a range of franchises that they may be prepared to travel to, thus increasing their value to the company.