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牛津论文代写:城市住建

Keywords:牛津论文代写

在LR技术的普及,尽管优势,存在多个问题,涉及土地治理等安全原则,公平参与(土耳其人,2008)。因此,在治理政策等不同方面的治理原则的评价、过程和结构是有效和可持续的城市LR必要。此外,它是回顾LR寮屋的案例来找出是否有可能搬迁的棚户区居民在发达和环境安全的地区基于参与式方法的重要(联合国人居署,2013a)。主要是,LR项目完全依赖于用户同意(业主)为基础设施建设,为项目的成本回收他们的土地使用。例如,近30%的日本城市土地已通过LR技术发达但有说法,LR技术有利于大地主的小土地所有者相当大的分歧。因此,大约有一半的市没有使用它在所有(atterhöG,1995)。同样,研究共识,土地所有者和LR多部门的参与表明,LR项目完全依赖土地所有者参与其中,私营部门和政府(Hong et al.,2007)。 除了参与,公平是可持续的LR的土地治理等重大原则。在土地资源的分配不公造成不同的困难的共识并最终转化为暴力,因此股权是由需求的测量值(yomralioglu,1993)。股权可以在输入股票术语描述,过程公平和结果公平(doebele,1982)。输入公平意味着用户的参与(利益相关者;所有者是LR项目的所有用户)在政策制定和规划。过程公平如用户土地贡献率和包容性的参与应该是公平的(Karki,2004a;土耳其人,2008)。输出股权可以在利益衡量的返回从LR项目通过土地价值和城市设施(Turk et al.,2010)。不幸的是,在尼泊尔,土地法第1963号已作出限制,以维持最低的包裹尺寸为80平方米。因为这土地的主人而不能维持最低的包裹的大小作为行为提到被迫出售他们的土地,LR的项目,因此他们失去了他们的土地和情感价值与社会关系。然而,好的土地治理是一直支持反对驱逐(Karki,2004a)。除了股权、土地使用权的安全性是另一个原则是评估在LR。土地使用权的安全性增强了人与土地的关系(simbizi et al.,2014)

牛津论文代写:城市住建

In spite of the popularity and advantages of the LR technique, there exist several problems that relates to the principles of land governance such as security, equity and participation (Turk, 2008). Therefore, the assessment of the governance principles in different aspects of the governance such as policy, process and structure is necessary for efficient and sustainable urban LR. Moreover, it is important to review the LR in the case of squatters to find out whether it is possible to relocate the squatters in developed and environmentally safe area based on participatory approach (UN-HABITAT, 2013a). Principally, LR projects are fully dependent on the consent of users (land owners) to use their land for infrastructure development and for cost recovery of the project. For instance, almost 30 % of Japanese urban land has been developed by LR technique but there was considerable disagreement by the small land owners with argument that the LR technique has favoured large landowners. Therefore, about half of the municipalities have not used it at all (Atterhög, 1995). Similarly, the study on consensus among the land owners and multi-sectorial involvement in LR reveals that LR projects are fully dependent on the participation among the land owners, private sector and with the government (Hong et al., 2007).

In addition to the participation, equity is other significant principle of the land governance for sustainable LR. Inequity in the distribution of the land resources causes different difficulties in building consensus and finally convert into violence, thus equity is measured by the value of the needs (Yomralioglu, 1993). Equity can be described in terms of input equity, process equity and output equity (Doebele, 1982). Input equity means the involvement of users (stakeholder; landowners are the entire users in LR project) in the policy formulation and planning. Process equity such as land contribution ratio and inclusive participation of users should be fair (Karki, 2004a; Turk, 2008). Output equity can be measured in terms of the benefit returned from the LR project through land value and urban facilities (Turk et al., 2010). Unfortunately, in Nepal, the Lands Act 1963 has made the restriction to maintain minimum parcel size to 80 m2. Because of this the land owner who are unable to maintain the minimum parcel size as mentioned in the acts are forced to sell their land to the LR project and consequently they lose the sentimental value attached with their land and social relationship. However, good land governance is always supportive against the forced eviction (Karki, 2004a). Besides the equity, land tenure security is another principle to be assessed in LR. Land tenure security strengthens the relation between people and land (Simbizi et al., 2014).

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