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英国历史essay代写 德国查理四世制

Keywords:英国历史essay代写 德国查理四世制

1356年,查理四世制定了一部名为《金牛》的帝国宪法文件。该文件的目的是削弱教皇对德国政治的干涉,并加强帝国内部选举人之间的联系。七名选举人完全控制皇帝的位置,成功的候选人将由多数人选出,一旦当选就可以立即行使皇权。教皇声称要审查竞争对手的候选人并批准选举结果,但德国政治与教皇干预之间的距离进一步拉大,这一主张被忽视了。该文件概述了属于非宗教选民的领土将成为世袭的,现在投票附属于对这些土地的占有,这些土地永远不会被分割。新的选举机构保持在第七个,其中包括科隆、美因茨和特里尔的大主教,撒克逊人的选票投给了维滕贝格议院,另一个投给了莱茵河的巴拉廷伯爵,勃兰登堡的马尔格雷夫,还有一个投给了波希米亚国王(在这种情况下,查理自己就是国王)。当王位空缺时,萨克森公爵和帕拉廷伯爵将担任摄政王,因此,金牛排除了教皇作为帝国牧师的要求。向选举中的王公们做出了让步,他们获得了主权权利,包括发行硬币、征收通行费和建造城堡的权利,然而叛国仍然是一种惩罚。试图自治的城市受到限制,这对德国未来的中产阶级产生了持久的影响。理论上,这些好处仅限于七个选举人,尽管在实践中,所有世俗的领土王子都很快接受了它们。领地上的王子们仍然认为他们的土地是一种遗产,然而分割是经常发生的,在16世纪以前,长子继承制很少盛行。分治并不是对教会领土的威胁,教会领土没有王朝继承权,但这阻止了教会权力与王公之间的竞争。德国君主制的选举过程被视为一个弱点,这位有抱负的君主必须赢得大多数选举人的支持,这些选举人可以说掌握着真正的权力。一旦君主掌权,理论上他们不会被废黜,尽管他们现在面临的挑战是维护国内稳定和对帝国土地的权威以及崛起的世俗王子。查理成功地按照德国国王的意愿获得了波希米亚王冠,但除了波希米亚国王,他们不能被指定为帝国封地。
英国历史essay代写 德国查理四世制
Charles IV in 1356 created an imperial constitutional document known as the Golden Bull. An objective of the document was to weaken papal interference in German politics and to strengthen ties between the electors within the empire. The seven electors held full control of the position of Emperor, the successful candidate would be elected by the majority and once elected could immediately exercise royal rights. Strengthening the distance between German politics and papal interference the pope’s claim to examine rival candidates and to approve the election was ignored. The document outlined that the territories belonging to the lay electors were to become hereditary, and that the vote was now attached to the possession of these land, which were never to be divided. The new electoral body remained at seven which included the archbishops of Cologne, Mainz, and Trier, the Saxon vote was given to the Wittenberg house, another to the count palatine of the Rhine, the margrave of Brandenburg and one to king of Bohemia (in which case Charles was himself king). When the throne was vacant the duke of Saxony and the count palatine would act as regents, the Golden Bull therefore excluded the pope’s claim to act of vicar of the empire. Concessions were given to the electoral princes, they received sovereign rights including the right to issue coinage, impose tolls and build castles, treason, however, remained a penalty. Cities attempting to become autonomous were restricted upon, which subsequently had long-lasting effects for the future German middle classes. In theory these benefits were limited to the seven electors, although in practice, all secular territorial princes quickly adopted them. The territorial princes continued to regard their land as a patrimony, yet partitions were frequent, and primogeniture rarely prevailed before the sixteenth century. Partition was not a threat to the ecclesiastical territories, which did not have a dynastic succession this however stopped the ecclesiastical powers from increasing their power in competition with the princes. The election process in Germany’s monarchy was viewed as a weakness, the aspiring monarch had to win favour of majority of the electors, who arguably held the real power. Once the monarch was in power they could not, in theory, be deposed though they now the challenge of maintaining domestic stability and authority over the lands in the Empire and the rising secular princes. Charles did successfully manage to secure the Bohemian Crown in accordance with the will of the German kings, yet they could not be assigned as an imperial fief to anyone other than the King of Bohemia.
 

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