On the opposite side of the world, the system of fortification was developed for the same cultural and political reasons, yet represented in vastly different manners. Different components were added to the design; some were employed to achieve optimum defensive efficiency, some to claim psychological dominance over its people. Nonetheless, evidence began to emerge in both worlds showing a shift from religious subjects to relatively truthful depictions of the world as-is. Without getting into the controversy of Zheng He’s Navigation Map in 1418 (whether or not his discovery of America predates Columbus), the value of the map showed the nation’s desire of exchanging intellectual knowledge. International trading routes were established; new, sophisticated instruments were created for navigators to reach new lands and return. The practice of drawing maps became increasingly incorporated with other disciplines across the globe.
The design of fortification was no longer a subject exclusive to field practitioners. Geometry principles proved incredibly critical for the design of fortification, resulted in diverse talents devoted to military design. One could find treatises that start to incorporate mathematics, artillery methods transposed from recreational areas, and the treatises themselves being analyzed as artistic entity.