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英国爱丁堡论文代写:华盛顿共识

Keywords:英国爱丁堡论文代写

对华盛顿共识的批评是伟大的和多样的,主要是,它的目的是在一致的方式坚持的想法,由西方丰富的资本主义国家的政策本质上是“好”,应该作为一个模型,遵循的所有国家。通过迫使发展中国家,比如在南美国,或非洲,遵循这些规则以获得国际援助,争论的焦点是,这些经济体不必要的阻碍,通过压缩成适合西方发达经济体的格局,并迫使他们对外国商品和服务开放市场,当他们至少具备处理和接受。的共识,对经济是强加的效果已被证明是有害的,如在上世纪90年代早期的阿根廷经济危机,即使有正面效应同时发生。从广义上讲,华盛顿共识加强的现状,和艾滋病的富裕国家警方的共识,并为那些实现它远不止是最需要帮助的贫困国家提供援助。华盛顿共识已经在这些国家是实施了一系列的影响;具体地说,在该工会的力量已经贫穷国家–削减最低工资–减少,并伴随减少就业保护(Cornia,2004:197)。然而,这些结果往往被认为是不相关的负责决策;是否有任何一个人得到报酬少的问题不是一点银行,而是作为一个结果,经济增长。即使个人更糟,经济增长的立场可以采取,大家受益于新发现的财富,特别是从增加政府开支,可能会导致。的共识,甚至可以对它似乎是为了工作,例如其对工会地位;保持传统的自由市场观点认为集体谈判力工资上涨太高难以竞争,并坚持其他规定,因此,工会起到阻碍经济的发展,国家执行华盛顿共识看削弱工会的地位。然而,研究表明,强大的中央,集体谈判的国家,如瑞士和德国,具有较低的收入不平等和降低通货膨胀率,比那些没有(Cornia,2004:217)。经济学家是否关注收入的不平等,旨在降低通货膨胀率无疑是有益的--然而,所采取的政策恰恰是那些应该带来预期结果的精确逆。
英国爱丁堡论文代写:华盛顿共识
The criticism against the Washington Consensus is great and varied; predominantly, it is aimed at the way in which the Consensus is stuck in the idea that the policies followed by rich western capitalist states are inherently ‘good’, and should, as a model, be followed by all countries. By forcing developing nations, such as in South America, or Africa, to follow these rules in order to gain international aid, the argument is made that these economies are unnecessarily hindered, by constricting them into a pattern that suits the developed Western economies, and forces them to open their markets to foreign goods and services when they are least well equipped to handle and accept them. The effects that the consensus has on economies it is forced upon have been shown to be detrimental, such as the Argentinean economic crisis of the early 1990s , even if there were positive side effects that occurred at the same time. Broadly speaking, the Washington Consensus reinforces the current situation, and aids the rich nations who police the consensus, and provide aid to those who implement it far more than the poor nations which are most in need of help.The Washington Consensus has a number of impacts on the countries in which it is implemented; specifically, a reduction in the minimum wages – in already disproportionately poor countries – reductions in the power of the labour unions, and an accompanying reduction in employment protection (Cornia, 2004: 197). These results, however, are often considered to be irrelevant by those in charge of making decisions; whether or not any one individual is getting paid less matters not one bit to a banker, but rather whether as a result the economy is growing. Even if individuals are worse off, with a growing economy the position could be taken that everybody benefits en masse from the newfound wealth, and particularly from the increased government expenditure that can result. The Consensus can even work against what it seems to be aiming for, for example with its position on labour unions; holding the traditional liberal market view that collective bargaining forces wages to rise too high to be competitive, and insist on other regulations, and that therefore unions serve to hold back the development of an economy, countries that enforce the Washington Consensus see a weakening of the position of their unions. Yet research has shown that countries with strong central, collective bargaining, such as Switzerland and Germany, feature lower inequality of income and lower inflation rates than those without (Cornia, 2004: 217). Whether or not the economist is concerned with the inequality of income, aiming for a lower rate of inflation would surely be beneficial – yet the policies taken are the precise inverse of those which should be to bring about the desired end result.

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